• 来稿:陈琳   北京市虹天济神经科学研究院

  • Rev Neurosci. 2005;16(1):1-21.   

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  • Optimising plasticity: environmental and  training associated factors in transplant-mediated brain  repair

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  • Döbrössy MD, Dunnett  SB.

  • The Brain Repair Group, Cardiff School  of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales,  UK.

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  • With progressively ageing populations,  degeneration of nerve cells of the brain, due to accident or disease, represents  one of the major problems for health and welfare in the developed world. The  molecular environment in the adult brain promotes stability limiting its ability  to regenerate or to repair itself following injury. Cell transplantation aims to  repair the nervous system by introducing new cells that can replace the function  of the compromised or lost cells. Alternatives to primary embryonic tissue are  actively being sought but this is at present the only source that has been shown  reliably to survive grafting into the adult brain and spinal cord, connect with  the host nervous system, and influence behaviour. Based on animal studies,  several clinical trials have now shown that embryonic tissue grafts can  partially alleviate symptoms in Parkinson's disease, and related strategies are  under evaluation for Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke and other  CNS disorders. The adult brain is at its most plastic in the period following  injury, offering a window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Enriched  environment, behavioural experience and grafting can each separately influence  neuronal plasticity and recovery of function after brain damage, but the extent  to which these factors interact is at present unknown. To improve the outcome  following brain damage, transplantation must make use of the endogenous  potential for plasticity of both the host and the graft and optimise the  external circumstances associated with graft-mediated recovery. Our  understanding of mechanisms of brain plasticity subsequent to brain damage needs  to be associated with what we know about enhancing intrinsic recovery processes  in order to improve neurobiological and surgical strategies for repair at the  clinical level. With the proof of principle beginning to emerge from clinical  trials, a rich area for innovative research with profound therapeutic  application, even broader than the specific context of transplantation, is now  opening for investigation.

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优化可塑性:移植介导的脑修复中与环境和训练相关的因素